The Renaissance of the Twelfth Century
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Examines the historical background and major cultural developments of the Mediaeval Renaissance.
cathedral teachers like Robert of Melun, William of Conches, Bernard Silvester, and Abaelard. Most of the great names in poetry, theology, and education belong to the cathedrals. Even prelates who did not themselves write encouraged learning: William of the White Hands, bishop of Chartres and archbishop of Sens and of Rheims (11761202), cardinal, and regent of France during the Third Crusade, received the dedications of the Alexandreid of Walter of ChA,tillon, the Microcosmographia of an unknown
its geographical position and opportunity. A meeting-point of North and South, East and West, it was a fertile source of translations from Greek and Arabic, even a place where works were written in these languages. Its first king, Roger, made a hobby 60 THE TWELFTH CENTURY of geography, and supervised the preparation of the great map of Edrisi with its accompanying Arabic text. Under his successor, William I, the chief translators, Aristippus and Eugene of Palermo, were officers of the royal
LATIN CLASSICS III Hecyra; but even he has been thought capable of making two authors out of Suetonius Tranquillus. Of prose writers, Cicero naturally came first, revered, if for nothing else, as the 'king of eloquence' and the chief representative of one of the seven arts, rhetoric. So voluminous an author had, however, to take his chances amidst the accidents of manuscript transmission, and his works were not all known in the same degree. Indeed, when one of his admirers, Wibald of Korvey (d.
History of the City of Rome in tne Middle Ages, tr. by Annie Hamilton, iv (London, 1896). The MiralJilia, edited by Parthey (Berlin, 1869), is translated by F. M. Nichols (London, J889). Master Gregory is edited by M. R. James in English HisloritaJ Review, xxxii. 531-554 (1917); and by G. McN. Rushforth in Journal tif Roman Studies, ix. 14-58 (19 1 9). F. Schneider, Rom una Romgedanke im Mittelalter (Munich, 1926), treats chiefly of the earlier period. CHAPTER V THE LATIN LANGUAGE I N the
the rolls of the AngloNorman exchequer, the registers of Italian notaries, and the enormous body of accounts and charters and legal instruments throughout Europe. The merchant and the lawyer, the bailiff's clerk and the physician, needed their Latin as well as the scholar and the priest. With so wide an extension in space and so wide a variety of application, no language could be uniform and unchanging, and we are quite prepared to find that the Latin of the Middle Ages differs according to place