Engineering the City: Projects and Principles for Beginners

Engineering the City: Projects and Principles for Beginners

Richard Panchyk, Matthys Levy

Language: English

Pages: 92

ISBN: 2:00251193

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub

How does a city obtain water, gas, and electricity? Where do these services come from? How are they transported? The answer is infrastructure, or the inner, and sometimes invisible, workings of the city. Roads, railroads, bridges, telephone wires, and power lines are visible elements of the infrastructure; sewers, plumbing pipes, wires, tunnels, cables, and sometimes rails are usually buried underground or hidden behind walls. Engineering the City tells the fascinating story of infrastructure as it developed through history along with the growth of cities. Experiments, games, and construction diagrams show how these structures are built, how they work, and how they affect the environment of the city and the land outside it.

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Levy, Matthys. Engineering the city : how infrastructure works : projects and principles for beginners / Matthys Levy and Richard Panchyk. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 1-55652-419-6 1. Civil engineering—Juvenile literature. 2. Municipal engineering— Juvenile literature. [1. Civil engineering. 2. Municipal engineering.] I. Panchyk, Richard. II. Title. TA 149.L49 2000 624-dc21 00-031774 � 2000 by Matthys Levy

clear because the offending bacteria are too small to be visible. To be perfectly safe, always have water from a new source tested in a laboratory before drinking it. However, the first families multiplied over time. The village became a town and, much later, a city. After a while, the crystal-clear lake or river gradually turned cloudy and people became ill from drinking its smelly water. People noticed that water that flowed from a spring in the ground was usually clear. So they began to dig

ago. The first records we have of truss bridges are in the writings of Andrea Palladio, a 16th-century Italian architect. Palladio describes a number of bridges he designed including a 100-foot-long (30 m) truss over the Cismone River that descends from the mountains that divide Italy and Germany. Build a Triangular Truss MATERIALS Drill 2 tongue depressors (available from a pharmacy) Brass paper fastener Rubber band Figure 6.17 ADULT SUPERVISION RECOMMENDED. Have an adult drill small

the Greek engineer Eupalinus of Megara was given the task of supplying water to the city of Samos. To accomplish this, he built one of the first aqueducts dug through a mountain. The tunnel was almost 3,300 feet (1,000 m) long and was dug simultaneously from both sides of the mountain. When the two crews digging the tunnel met in the middle, the centerline of each side was only 16 feet (5 m) off, a miracle since they had no instruments capable of accurately measuring angles. Figure 1.5

(Figure 2.8). Figure 2.8 On the other hand, some older ports were abandoned and some have disappeared as the boundary between land and sea has changed over time. For instance, the ancient Greek port city of Ephesus (located on the coast of modern-day Turkey) is now some distance from the sea. The Belgian city of Brugge also used to connect to the sea. When its link to the sea filled with mud and silt, Brugge lost its power and wealth. To travel across the oceans, boats, which were at first

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