Art Anatomy of Animals (Dover Anatomy for Artists)
Ernest Thompson Seton
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Chapters cover a number of domesticated and wild species: the anatomy, size, and proportion of the lion, tiger, leopard, and other members of the cat family; bears (including the grizzly, European brown, American black, and the polar bear); as well as the camel, Indian elephant, and the caribou. Additional sections consider the horse in motion, the gallop of a dog, and bird feathering.
One of the most widely consulted books on the subject, Art Anatomy of Animals will be a valuable addition to the libraries of both instructors and students of art.
sacrum. Insertion : the seventh cervical vertebra, and also to all the thoracic and lumbar vertebræ by their transverse processes, and to the ribs. Action : to extend the spine or bend it to one side. (Plates X., XIII., XIV , XV., XXIII.) Spinalis (Spinalis dorsi et cervicis or colli). This is but the inner part of the longissimus dorsi, and is therefore part of the erector spinæ. Origin : chiefly in the last dorsal and the lumbar vertebræ and from the sacrum. Insertion : the spinous processes
anatomy the Ox may be considered intermediate between the Horse and the Dog. The Horse has one toe on each foot, the Ox two (fully developed), and the Dog four or five ; the Horse has fifteen or sixteen bones in each foot ; the Ox nineteen or twenty ; the Dog thirty-two or thirty-six. The Ox resembles the Horse in having the ulna and radius united into what is practically one bone, and the fibula a mere rudiment ; but it resembles the Dog in having thirteen pairs of ribs, whereas the Horse has
in 1878, that the matter was forcibly brought to the notice of the public and the whole art world. At first these photographs were looked upon merely as amusing curiosities, but their educational influence has steadily grown, and to-day it is the exception when one sees a running Horse depicted in the ‘hobby-horse’ attitude. Being instantaneous photographs, their truth is beyond impeachment, and yet it is perhaps needless to remark that all truth is not equally good; and the artist who blindly
quill-feathers, and so close upon the latter that the two seem to have grown together. The greater hand-coverts (T. majores primores) are equal in number to the quill-feathers. Of the Tectrices cubitales there are always one or two more than of the corresponding remiges; thus, externally, there is always one small supernumerary one. Properly, they ought to be of equal number, as the feathers here, as everywhere, are arranged in quincunx (rows of three different sets), which constitutes a
they influence the visible form. The following is a classified list of these muscles. Those on the muzzle, lower jaw and hyoid region are briefly described, as some of them are distinguishable in the living animal. THE MUSCLES OF THE MOUTH AND CHEEK. Plates VII., VIII., X., XII. I have failed to detect the individual form of any but four of these in the living Dog, but the complex mass surrounding the mouth is peculiar in shape and is important. RISORIUS (Risorius Santorini). ZYGOMATICUS